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After the Civil War, who supervised the South.
The Union supervised the South after the Civil War.
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Slavery was AN ISSUE, but not THE CAUSE. Slavery would have eventually been abolished for economic reasons without the war. There were some in the North who truly saw slavery as an evil that should be abolished, but the majority was not so vehemently opposed to it. Only a very small percentage in the South owned more than one or two slaves and therefore had an economic interest in maintaining the status quo. Actually, only 5% owned even one slave. What can we compare this to in today’s news? This isn’t really a good comparison, but many people are very concerned about saving the spotted owl’s habitat. On the other hand, a few could profit by clear-cutting the old-growth forests. In the middle there are people who will agree with each extreme but are not really concerned, and a large majority who just don’t give a damn one way or the other. NO mother is going to send her sons to war to protect the owls OR to preserve the logging industry’s profits. Very few were willing to do so to free the slaves or maintain the plantations’ labor supply. I have read a few Yankee Civil War diaries and NONE said they were fighting to free the slaves. The most common reasons for joining were to preserve the Union and, in Bloody Kansas, revenge for raids by the Missouri pro-slavery forces. I’ll admit that I haven’t found any Rebel diaries, but I doubt if many said they were fighting to preserve slavery.
With a larger population (20 million vs 5 million citizens plus 4 million slaves), the Northern states controlled the House of Representatives. With a larger number of states (19 vs 11), the North controlled the Senate. The South had an agricultural economy, primarily from exporting cotton. EXPORTS of agricultural products were taxed, keeping prices low. The North had an industrial economy. IMPORTS of finished products were taxed, inflating the value of industrial output. 85% of the US budget was from taxes collected in the Southern states. With the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the South saw their power in the Federal government being reduced even further. The primary cause of the Civil War was the same as the justification of the American Revolution – Taxation without representation.
This photo shows some of the weapons used in the Civil War.
General Civil War Information
(1861 – 65) Conflict between the U.S. federal government and 11 Southern states that fought to secede from the Union. It arose out of disputes over the issues of slavery, trade and tariffs, and the doctrine of states' rights. In the 1840s and '50s, Northern opposition to slavery in the Western territories caused the Southern states to fear that existing slaveholdings, which formed the economic base of the South, were also in danger. By the 1850s abolitionism was growing in the North, and when the antislavery Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, the Southern states seceded to protect what they saw as their right to keep slaves. They were organized as the Confederate States of America under Jefferson Davis. The Northern states of the federal Union, under Lincoln, commanded more than twice the population of the Confederacy and held greater advantages in manufacturing and transportation capacity. The war began in Charleston, S.C., when Confederate artillery fired on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Both sides quickly raised armies. In July 1861, 30,000 Union troops marched toward the Confederate capital at Richmond, Va., but were stopped by Confederate forces in the Battle of Bull Run and forced to retreat to Washington, D.C. The defeat shocked the Union, which called for 500,000 more recruits. The war's first major campaign began in February 1862, when Union troops under Ulysses S. Grant captured Confederate forts in western Tennessee. Union victories at the battles of Shiloh and New Orleans followed. In the East, Robert E. Lee won several Confederate victories in the Seven Days' Battles and, after defeat at the Battle of Antietam, in the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862). After the Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee invaded the North and engaged Union forces under George Meade at the momentous Battle of Gettysburg. The war's turning point in the West occurred in July 1863 with Grant's success in the Vicksburg Campaign, which brought the entire Mississippi River under Union control. Grant's command was expanded after the Union defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga, and in March 1864 Lincoln gave him supreme command of the Union armies. He began a strategy of attrition and, despite heavy Union casualties at the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, began to surround Lee's troops in Petersburg, Va. (see Petersburg Campaign). Meanwhile William T. Sherman captured Atlanta in September (see Atlanta Campaign), set out on a destructive march through Georgia, and soon captured Savannah. Grant captured Richmond on April 3, 1865, and accepted Lee's surrender on April 9 at Appomattox Court House. On April 26 Sherman received the surrender of Joseph Johnston, thereby ending the war. The mortality rates of the war were staggering — there were about 620,000 deaths out of a total of 2.4 million soldiers. The South was devastated. But the Union was preserved, and slavery was abolished.
Specific facts on the Civil War
The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a major war between the United States (the "Union") and eleven Southern states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis. The Union, led by President Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party, rejected any right of secession and opposed the expansion of slavery into territories owned by the United States. Fighting commenced on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a United States (federal) military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina, located in the Confederate States of America.
During the first year, the Union asserted control of the border states and established a naval blockade as both sides raised large armies. In 1862 large, bloody battles began, causing massive casualties as a result of incompatibility between new weapons and old battlefield tactics. In September 1862, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made the freeing of slaves in the South a war goal, despite opposition from northern Copperheads who tolerated secession and slavery. Emancipation reduced the likelihood of intervention from Britain and France on behalf of the Confederacy. In addition, the goal also allowed the Union to recruit African-Americans for reinforcements, a resource that the Confederacy did not dare exploit until it was too late. War Democrats reluctantly accepted emancipation as part of total war needed to save the Union. In the East, Confederate general Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia and rolled up a series of victories over the Army of the Potomac, but his best general, Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson, was killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863. Lee's invasion of the North was repulsed at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania in July 1863; he barely managed to escape back to Virginia. The Union Navy captured the port of New Orleans in 1862, and Ulysses S. Grant seized control of the Mississippi River by capturing Vicksburg, Mississippi in July 1863, thus splitting the Confederacy.
By 1864, long-term Union advantages in geography, manpower, industry, finance, political organization and transportation were overwhelming the Confederacy. Grant fought a number of bloody battles with Lee in Virginia in the summer of 1864. Lee's defensive tactics resulted in extremely high casualties for Grant's army, but Lee lost strategically overall as he could not replace his casualties and was forced to retreat into trenches around his capital, Richmond, Virginia. Meanwhile, William Tecumseh Sherman, the leader of the Union Military Division of the Mississippi, captured Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman's March to the Sea destroyed a hundred-mile-wide swath of Georgia. In 1865, the Confederacy collapsed after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House; all slaves in the Confederacy were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. Slaves in the border states and Union controlled parts of the South were freed by state action or by the Thirteenth Amendment.
The full restoration of the Union was the work of a highly contentious postwar era known as Reconstruction. The war produced about 970,000 casualties (3% of the population), including approximately 620,000 soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease. The causes of the war, the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering controversy even today. The main results of the war were the restoration and strengthening of the Union (mainly by permanently ending the issue of secession), and the end of slavery in the United States.
Jefferson Davis was the president for the Confederates during the civil war.
Even More facts
"Square" and "solid" applied equally to Lafayette McLaws's character and appearance. His complexion was swarthy, his hair was curly and very black, his beard was enormous and bushy and half-covered his broad face, and his eyes--"coal black" according to the observant Rebel artilleryman Robert Stiles--peered out in a rather owlish way. He was short, compact, and burly, with big square shoulders, deep chest, and large, muscular arms. Stiles thought that "of his type, he is a handsome man."
McLaws personified stolidity, and he reminded Stiles of the Roman centurion who stood at his post in Herculaneum "until the lava ran over him." He was a capable soldier without flair, whose steady performance never produced a high moment. His reliability and dogged tenacity rubbed off on his division, however, and made them as hard to dislodge as any in the army. He exuded unflinching fortitude, with the downside being that he lacked military imagination, and was at his best when told exactly what to do and when closely supervised by superiors. Although he developed a suitable mastery of profanity, his martial demeanor hid a sensitive soul. McLaws was a feeling, literate man who poured out his experiences in candid, often sentimental letters to his wife. On the Rappahannock he and Brig. Gen. William Barksdale would wander over to the riverbank at night and listen quietly to the Yankee bands playing the army favorites about lives and loves lost.
A native Georgian, McLaws was a student at the University of Virginia when he received his appointment to West Point, where he graduated 48th out of 62 students in the Class of 1842. Soon after, he married Zachary Taylor's niece. From there he made his life the army, serving in the infantry in Mexico, on the frontier, and in the Mormon Expedition. He had been a captain of infantry for almost ten years when the Sumter crisis erupted in April 1861 and McLaws resigned his commission to "go South."
Made colonel and assigned to the 10th Georgia regiment in June 1861, McLaws was posted on the James Peninsula and was helping to construct its defenses at the time the battle of First Manassas was being fought further north. Soon, he had so impressed his superior Brig. Gen. John Magruder that he was made brigadier general in September and given a division in the Peninsula defenses in November. The fighting on the Peninsula began in earnest with the arrival of McClellan's Union army the next spring, and after an impressive performance in the battle at Yorktown, for which he was highly commended by both Magruder and army commander Gen. Joseph Johnston, McLaws was made major general on May 23, 1862. He had risen very far very fast, having established himself among the top echelon of Confederate generals before the climax of the Peninsula Campaign. No one could have predicted that he would never rise further.
The next month, in the Seven Days' Battles at Savage's Station and Malvern Hill, McLaws's division fought, but it was Magruder who directed most of its operations. In July, after that week of combat had dimmed Magruder's star and added luster to Maj. Gen. "Pete" Longstreet's, McLaws and his division were added to Longstreet's command, an association which would last for the next two years of almost constant campaigning. In August 1862, when Lee and the rest of the army left Richmond to "suppress" the Union army under John Pope, McLaws and his division were left on the Peninsula (along with D.H. Hill's division) to keep an eye on the Federals there. As a result, McLaws missed the battle of Second Bull Run.
McLaws's and Hill's divisions were soon summoned by Lee for the Maryland Campaign in September. There, McLaws made a poor showing which impaired his standing with General Lee. After McLaws assisted with the capture of Harper's Ferry, at a time when Lee was desperately hurrying to concentrate his army at Sharpsburg and expecting McLaws to demand the last energies of his men, McLaws stumbled. His division took forty-one hours to cover the distance--from Harper's Ferry to Sharpsburg--which A.P. Hill's division covered the later that day in nine. McLaws barely arrived in time for the battle. In his report after Sharpsburg, Lee came as close to censure as he ever did in written comments on his officers' performances when he wrote that "[McLaws's] progress was slow, and he did not reach the battlefield at Sharpsburg until sometime after the engagement of the 17th began."
At Fredericksburg three months later, McLaws put himself back in Lee's good graces. The defensive preparations above the town were the type of work at which McLaws shone. Under Longstreet's supervision and with the help of corps engineers, he dug pits for his batteries and strengthened parts of his line with obstructions. He went to work on a sunken road which made up part of his front, improving on a stone wall which protected the road by digging a ditch on the town side of the road, and banking the dirt against the wall. Within this ideal firing trench he provided his men with stacks of loaded muskets. When the battle was over, the snowy ground in front of the trench was thickly carpeted with Union dead from many divisions; it was the most one-sided victory of the war. The reports of both Longstreet and Lee praised McLaws.
Then at Chancellorsville McLaws's star dimmed again. He received word in the latter stages of the battle that Lee wished his and Early's division to attack and overwhelm the isolated Union Sixth Corps. McLaws was the highest ranking major general in the Confederate army, and Jubal Early the most recently appointed, but the deferential McLaws ended up letting Early direct the whole operation. McLaws had always been happier obeying a direct order than acting on a discretionary one. Called on for initiative to solve the puzzle of how to move against the enemy at Chancellorsville, he was paralyzed by indecision. When the attack finally got under way, McLaws was hesitant and unaggressive, and the enemy host escaped.
The loss of Lieut. Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson at Chancellorsville catalyzed a reorganization of the army that Lee had been contemplating for months. The two corps, Jackson's and Longstreet's, would become three, and two new corps commanders would be named. Longstreet recommended McLaws, and McLaws thought himself deserving of corps command by virtue of his seniority and his reliable service. When in late May Lee chose Maj. Gens. Dick Ewell and A.P. Hill for the new posts, McLaws was shattered. Both of the men chosen were from Virginia, and McLaws felt that favoritism for natives of the Old Dominion had deprived him of his rightful standing in the army. He requested a transfer.
But there was more to McLaws's failure to advance than the fact that he was a Georgian. He had been ill the previous winter, and his listless performance at Chancellorsville had disappointed Lee and recalled his similar failure before Sharpsburg the previous fall. Lee simply did not think McLaws's performance over the last year indicated that he was deserving of further advancement.
Despite his disappointment, McLaws's strengths as a division commander were appreciated by his troops. He attended closely to the needs of his men and had their respect, even if he was not brilliant. "He was an officer of much experience and most careful," noted Longstreet's aide Moxley Sorrel. "Fond of detail, his command was in excellent condition, and his ground and position well examined and reconnoitered; not brilliant in field or quick in movement there or elsewhere, he could always be counted on and had secure the entire confidence of his officers and men." His tendency to be cautious--he sometimes sent out pickets as far as eight miles--and his fussiness and rigidity in enforcing regulations--his men nicknamed him "Make Laws"--made his division a reliable one. McLaws was a career soldier who could be depended upon, but needed to be closely supervised. He had commanded his division longer than anybody in Lee's army and knew it inside and out.
This is another picture of Jefferson Davis.
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